From Make Believe Play to Making Manure

On Wednesday Ron, Grace, Josephine and I headed to the village of Nabigwali to facilitate a Make Believe workshop. As we made our way to Nabigwali we enjoyed the excitement in the communities as crowds of people were playing music, dancing and singing to celebrate their candidates victory in the elections. The aim of the Make Believe workshop is to teach volunteer mothers about the importance of imaginary play for their children. Imaginary play provides opportunities for children to expand their communication and language skills, it encourages imitation and modelling, and it fosters cooperation, sharing and other adaptive social skills. As someone who loved playing princesses, shop, school, mammies & daddies, and actresses (yes that is a make believe game; anything goes, it’s make believe!) over playing with dolls and puzzles, I can endorse that above all of the developmental benefits make believe play is lots of fun.

To begin, the mothers are taught about the benefits of playing make believe games. The team then present them with examples of make believe scenarios; for example, playing shop or school or taxi. They are then asked to brainstorm what their child would do if they were to play the game and what materials from their local environment could they use to enhance their engagement with the game. For example, if the game was shop, the child can be encouraged to use tins and boxes as grocery items, bricks as shelves, and stones as money. And because everyone loves a good role-play (but really because role-plays help consolidate learning), the mothers are then invited to play a make believe game and reflect on their experience. They are then encouraged to play make believe games with their young ones at home and required to incorporate make believe play into the Play Centre curriculum.

As protocol the Lively Minds team contact a leader in the village prior to our departure from the Jinja office to remind the women that we are coming, and to find out if there are any events that might prevent the workshops form taking place. However, this precaution does not always ensure that training goes ahead as planned. When we arrived at Nabigwali we learned that an elder in the village had suddenly passed away and that all the women had gone to pay their respects. And so Make Believe training in Nabigwali was not to be that day.

Women & children (& a few men) eagerly listening to the Manure-Making workshop

Women & children (& a few men) eagerly listening to the Manure-Making workshop

Instead we travelled to a neighbouring village called Bukasami, where Mike & Salma were leading a Manure-Making workshop. Uganda is one of the most fertile countries in Africa and so Lively Minds teach their Play Centre volunteers how to make the most of their garden produce by cultivating manure. In addition to the twenty women who were attending the workshop, their children also gathered for the lesson and so too did a few men, who coyly hung back within earshot of Mike’s instructions. The women had brought all the required tools and ingredients; trowels, sticks, potato leaves, urine, water, cow dung, and ash; and they weren’t afraid to get their hands dirty!

The first step: digging the pit

The first step: digging the pit

Adding all the active ingredients

Adding all the active ingredients

Following the demonstration, each volunteer was set with the challenge to make their own manure pit, which will be ready to nourish their fruit and veggies in four weeks. In encouraging the women to complete the task Mike reminded them that the manure pit did not cost anything as all the materials used are free and plentiful, and that the benefits would be many. He also jovially informed them that he would be back to inspect their work!

Mike: your go-to-guy for manure making!

Mike: your go-to-guy for manure making!

Claire

Election Day/s in Uganda

On Monday the nationwide local elections were supposed to be held, however, as Ugandan’s headed to the polls they were informed that the elections were postponed until the following day. When I asked why, Grace, a Lively Minds employee replied, “Because this is Uganda”. As all of Lively Minds play centres and workshops are in held in public buildings, which are used as polling centres, we had already cancelled all field-work for Monday and consequently had to cancel our plans for Tuesday. But we made the most of the unforeseen circumstances regardless.

Joshua, Lively Minds country manager, invited me to give a psychological opinion on a 9-year-old boy with significantly delayed verbal skills. I was greeted by the happiest little boy that I’ve met in quite some time. His parents informed me that they had taken him to many doctors in Jinja and Kampala, who repeatedly told them that their son does not have any difficulties or impairment. From me, they wanted an answer to their question of whether he would benefit from attending a special needs school. A universal model of education is provided in Uganda. Although at face value free education for all is ideal, universal education here equates to the same education for all. With one teacher and up for 50 students in each class, this means that children with any learning difficulties do not get support or a tailored curriculum to help them reach their potential. Priding itself with one of the highest English proficiency rates in Africa, lessons are mostly taught through English, which makes it even harder for children with learning disabilities to achieve. Imagine how difficult learning in that environment would be for a child who can only articulate a handful of words in his local language. Although they are rare special needs schools and classrooms do exist. They reside outside of the universal education system, ensuring that they are reserved for only those who can afford to pay.

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Pupils enjoying biology at Twin Primary School, Buwagi

Before Joshua joined the Lively Minds team he founded his own primary school in his home village of Buwagi. He invited me to visit his school to meet a boy with significant learning difficulties and hopefully advise his staff on how best to support him. However, on arriving this young boy had already called it a day! Since starting his school eight years ago the pupil numbers have grown to 200. Although it is officially a private school, a quarter of the students are orphans from HIV-AIDS, many of which also have HIV. Their tuition, board and medical care are covered by the school profits. The prevalence of HIV in Uganda is 7.4% and related mortality is frightfully high. Joshua explained that despite these rash facts the government do not support sufficient services for children who are orphaned to the virus, leaving the responsibility to rest with people like Joshua and his staff. He introduced me to his youngest pupil, an adorable three-year-old girl, who has found neglected after her parents passed from HIV. Although she is too young to participate in lessons, the local children join her on the school grounds to play. They were having so much fun until I rudely asked for a photo!

Joshua, his youngest pupil (centre) & her playmates

Joshua, his youngest pupil (centre) & her playmates

Claire

A Lively Start with Lively Minds in Uganda

Greetings from beautiful Uganda, where it’s lush & green (as green as the little emerald that I herald from) and the people greet with open arms. I’ve been overwhelmed by the Ugandan welcome. Coming from London, where we fear to make eye contact with strangers, let alone greet with a hello or smile, the warm welcome is striking. Arriving in Entebbe, which is one of the most picturesque landings I’ve yet experienced, I was met by a driver who hold me all about the history of Uganda & even tried to sell me a trip to see the chimpanzees (apparently he’s a safari guide too, which might come in handy later in my trip). We had a 3-hour edge-of-your-seat/imaginary-break-pumping journey to Jinja. But arrived safely at the Lively Minds house where, Sarah and Cliff were there with hugs and kisses to welcome me to the team.

Work at Lively Minds starts at 10am (for a person who finds early mornings aversive, Africa Time really suits me). I met all the team who expressed such gratitude that I’ve come to work with them. Although, I’m pretty confident I’ve much more to gain from learning from their team than I’ll add. Their day starts with a team debrief about the previous day’s work out on the field. Then a plan is made for the afternoon & resources for the play centres and workshops are worked on. I made my first Ugandan child cry that morning. Maria, the house keeper, has gorgeous 2 year old called Trisha. The team had a good laugh about it and teased “wait until you get to the field, most of the villagers have never seen a Muzungo before”. I didn’t really believe it, but it was soon to be true. We drove an hour into the countryside where the team planned to spontaneously review a play centre in Bulakaloya. The team were worried that it would rain and the car would become stranded in the muddy roads. As it’s rainy season, it inevitably poured, but (spoiler alert) we got out safely.

I had visited rural villages on an Intrepid tour in Kenya & Tanzania last year but this village was much more deprived; no water, no electricity, a community of small mud farming houses. When we pulled up and got out of the car, lots of the kids burst out crying and a few went running into the sugar cane fields. I quickly learned that the Lively Mind’s team’s prediction was true! These infants had never seen a white person before and quite frankly we’re pretty scary looking, especially a freckly one! The children who didn’t crying starred at me wide eyed petrified. Despite the initial commotion, lively learning in the play centre quickly resumed.

One of the play centre's matching tasks

One of the play centre’s matching tasks

You’ll hopefully see from the photos, that Mum’s are teaching lots of different cognitive tasks like matching shapes and colours, naming objects & counting and other skills like turn taking, imaginative play & story-telling. What I didn’t capture here were the group of children who were playing imaginative games outside. As we all need motivation to keep us going, the children are reinforced for their hard work by praise from their peers; by singing a little Asante Sana (thank you very much) song & rhythmic clapping. For me, the most impressive aspect of the play centres is that theses mothers never received formal education at all; most were married about 14-17 years of age and assume a low social standing in their patriarchal communities . Lively Minds fosters the idea that parents are our best teachers and in these rural communities mothers are best placed to provide their young ones with essential first formal learning experiences. From Lively Minds input, I saw a group of enthusiastic teachers who took pride in their work and delivered the programme with such love and passion. I particularly admired how female empowerment is at the core of the play centres. You’ll notice in the pictures that one woman is breastfeeding her infant while teaching and another has her baby taking a nap in the sling on her back, multi-tasking at its best!

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One of the young mothers feeding her baby & educating the children

The team informed me that although the child outcomes from the play centres are great; the mothers are more likely to send them to primary school, the kids score higher on testing, and they have fun, to name but a few. The mother’s outcomes are equally impressive, their attitudes toward education completely changes, and their relationship with their child improves, as too does their parenting skills. And importantly they feel empowered, reporting higher self-esteem and self-worth. All the mothers who run the play centres are volunteers, and they are asked to give two hours a week, while the kids attend two hours a day. At the end of the play school day, the volunteering mothers deliver the children back safely to their homes; effective community functioning in action!

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Busy at work! The play centre at Bulakalya

Claire